From Lowbrow to Highbrow: Elemental Musings on the Black Russian

From Lowbrow to Highbrow: Elemental Musings on the Black Russian

By Andrew “the Alchemist”

Thursday, September 30, 2010

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The Black Russian is an exceedingly simple drink, but what type of drink is it?  Using my usual method for getting at the elemental nature of a drink, I first ask which of the six elements are present.

The seven elements as I consider them are: aromatic, sour, sweet, strong, weak, succulent, thick.

The aromatic element could be argued about in the Black Russian.  Crème de café liqueur (Kahlua is but one brand) could easily be said to be aromatic.  Roasted coffee beans are decidedly-aromatic.  But, in compounding the Black Russian, the mixer does not add any purely-aromatic ingredient.  For now, I will skip the aromatic question.

There is no sour element in the Black Russian, so it is not a punch (which includes the sours).

The sweet element is present in the drink, all coming from the crème de café liqueur.

Being made of two liquors and ice, the strong element is very present in the Black Russian.

The weak element is present in the form of ice, which will dilute the drink.

There is no succulent element in the Black Russian, so it is not a succulent or a juice punch.

There is no thick element in the Black Russian, so it is not a posset (which includes flips and eggnogs).

So, the elements we have are: aromatic (possibly) + sweet + strong + weak.  The Black Russian is not drowned in the weak element, so it isn’t any grog-like drink.  This leaves it trying to be some type of sling.  (As has been aptly-shown by Wondrich and others, the Singapore ‘Sling’ is a mis-named punch).  If the Black Russian were aromatized by garnishing with freshly-grated nutmeg, it would then be mostly in the form of a (liqueuredly-fancy) traditional sling.

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The Black Russian Sling (on the rocks)

Vessel: 5½ fl-oz. (or larger) old-fashioned glass tumbler

Build in the tumbler

(If the following order is used, the heavier liqueur will mix itself into the lighter spirit)

→ 2 fl-oz. service ice (2 full-ounce cubes)

→ 1 fl-oz. plain vodka

→ 1 fl-oz. crème de café liqueur

Briefly stir the drink in its tumbler

Garnish by grating some nutmeg onto the surface of the drink

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I tried applying a different method to fully-mix it, and to get my desired amount of dilution – but then stop dilution there.  I don’t consider all dilution evil – it can open flavors.

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The Black Russian Sling (served up)

Vessel: 4½ fl-oz. traditional cocktail goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing glass:

→ 1 fl-oz. plain vodka

→ 1 fl-oz. crème de café liqueur

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the goblet

Garnish by grating some nutmeg onto the surface of the drink

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I then thought about turning it into a bittered sling – better known as a true cocktail.  Bitters will remove even more of the harshness of the ethanol than most other ingredients of the aromatic element..

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The Black Russian Cocktail

Vessel: 4½ fl-oz. traditional cocktail goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing glass:

→ 1 fl-oz. plain vodka

→ 1 fl-oz. crème de café liqueur

→ 2 fl-dsh.  aromatic bitters (Angostura or Bitter Truth)

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the goblet

Garnish with an authentic marasca cherry on a skewer

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Finally, I adjusted the proportion within the traditional, American 2-fl-oz. jigger to 3:1.

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The Black Russian Cocktail (3:1)

Vessel: 4½ fl-oz. traditional cocktail goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing glass:

→ 1½ fl-oz. plain vodka

→ ½ fl-oz. crème de café liqueur

→ 2 fl-dsh.  aromatic bitters (Angostura or Bitter Truth)

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the goblet

Garnish with an authentic marasca cherry on a skewer

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I liked this last one the best.  For now, I will leave it to others to try this same approach with the Rusty Nail, Godfather, Incredible Hulk, etc.

Tasting Report

Today’s Tasting Report

By Andrew “the Alchemist”

Thursday, September 30, 2010

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Here is my report on three liquors that I picked up and tried for the first time today.

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Campo de Encanto™ Pisco brandy

($32.99 at K & L Wine Merchants in Hollywood, California)

When I tasted this copper-pot-distilled spirit, I instantly knew that it would become my favorite Pisco brandy.  Its flavor is more complex than most, and even though it is bottled at a respectable 85-proof, the ethanol sensation is not aggressive.  Many Pisco brandies are ‘new’ (as in ‘un-aged’), but this one is aged for eight months in new, un-charred American oak barrels, making it ‘young.’   It is Peruvian, from near the city of Pisco, but made to the specification of some San Francisco bartenders “for bartenders.”  San Francisco has a long mixological history with Pisco brandy.

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Speyburn™ 10-year single Highland malt Scotch whisky

($19.95 at Beverage Warehouse in Culver City, California)

This relatively-young single-malt is very accessible to the palate.  Its flavor is probably not interesting enough for neat service to aficionados.  But, I would be happy to make this very-affordable single-malt my basic, mixing Scotch whisky.  It is an excellent value for that purpose.

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El Viejito™ “extra-aged” Tequila mezcal

($45.95 at Beverage Warehouse in Culver City, California)

Having been informed that this was a pure copper-pot-distilled Tequila mezcal, I was very eager to try it.  Perhaps I was expecting too much.  It did not have the fullness of flavor that I would expect from a copper-pot-distilled spirit.  It was very mellow – probably too mellow for my taste.

Cock-tailed & Cocktail

Cock-tailed & Cocktail

From the Oxford English Dictionary:

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Cock-tailed

1. Of horses: Having the tail docked, so that the short stump left sticks up like a cock’s tail. Common in the case of hunters, stage-coach horses, etc., during the latter part of the 18th century [1700’s] and first part of the 19th [1800’s].

1769 – Dublin Mercury: “A pair of beautiful black cock-tailed geldings”

2. Having the tail (or hinder part) cocked up.

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Cocktail (noun)

1. a. A cock-tailed horse. The fact that hunters and stage-coach horses, the tails of which were generally shortened in this way, were not as a rule thoroughbreds seems to have been the origin of the modern turf application [of the word ‘cocktail’].  b. ‘Any horse of racing stamp and qualities, but decidedly not thorough-bred, from a stain known in his parentage’ (Dictionary of Rural Sports, 1870).

2. (more fully: cocktail beetle) A brachelytrous beetle which ‘cocks up’ the posterior part of the body when irritated; the Devil’s Coach-horse.

3. [slang, orig. U.S.A.] A drink, consisting of spirit mixed with a small quantity of bitters, some sugar, etc.

1803 – The Farmer’s Cabinet: “Drank a glass of cocktail – excellent for the head; all sauntered away to see the girls”

1806 – Balance: “’Cock tail’ then, is a stimulating liquor, composed of spirits of any kind, sugar, water and bitters – it is vulgarly called a ‘bittered sling’”

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Cocktail (attributive & adjective)

1. That [which or whom] cocks the tail.

1600 – Rowlands, The Letting of Humour’s Blood: “How cock-taile proude he doth his head aduance – How rare his spurres do ring the morris-daunce”

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The Alchemist says:

Drink-lore aside, it seems plausible that the mixed-drink meaning of the above stems from the sense of a cock-tailed horse not being thoroughbred.  We could, perhaps, describe a drink as being thoroughbred if it were un-bittered, unmixed, undiluted, unsweetened liquor.

Five Real Cocktails with Staying-Power

Five Real Cocktails with Staying-Power

By Andrew “the Alchemist”

Monday, September 27, 2010

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Most mixed drinks aren’t true cocktails.  That’s okay – a drink shouldn’t have to be called a ‘cocktail’ for it to be a thing of delight to the drinker, and of pride to the bartender.  But be careful!  Middle-class attitude will resist anything that it perceives is an attempt to rob it of the terms it has adopted in its quest for sophistication.  Watch what happens when you tell a common bartender or drinker that their mixed drink is not a true cocktail.  They will interpret it to mean something like, “Your drink is no good.”

But, as someone interested in the elemental natures of the various types of drinks, I will put that concern aside.

A true cocktail is a drink made by sweetening an alcoholic base, diluting it, and bittering it.  If such a drink is also uncluttered by other types of ingredients, the bitters will smooth out the burn of the alcohol – but leave the base liquor relatively-unmolested enough to present the dominant flavor in the drink.

This is why pre-prohibition recipes for the Brandy Crusta and the Bronx Cocktail only contain a few drops of the citrus juice.  William Boothby, in the introduction to the cocktail section of his 1908 book, ‘World’s Drinks,’ wrote:

“The idea of making any liquor into a cocktail was conceived only for the purpose of removing the sharp, raw taste peculiar to all plain liquors.  Therefore it is not necessary to use a combination of cordials, essences or lemon juice as some ‘bar creatures’ do, but by adhering strictly to the herein contained directions you will be enabled to serve these famous American decoctions in as fine style as the highest salaried mixologist in the land.”

Now, to be sure, Boothby gives recipes for all the traditional (and then-current) non-cocktail drinks of his day – many of them containing such things as liqueurs or lemon juice.  The Whiskey Sour, Tom Collins, Bourbon Mint Julep, Gin Fizz, Grasshopper, Remsen Cooler, and many other old war-horses are there.  He just presents them in sections other than the cocktail section.  His approach was not unique – it was considered mixologically-correct and appropriate in his day.

Since then, the word ‘cocktail’ has been expanded to include all mixed drinks – at least amongst laypersons.  This is, perhaps, one consequence of the historically-large, American middle class, which loves to over-dress its speech.  The middle class prefers a pseudo-sophisticated sentence like, “Let’s discuss it over cocktails.”  But Paul Fussell, in his humorous book, ‘Class,’ notes that the upper class (not including the newly-rich) is socially-comfortable enough to just say, “Let’s have a drink and talk about it.”

Some true cocktails are still at-least-somewhat-commonly ordered.  The following drinks have survived in forms that would have been instantly-recognizable as cocktails by pre-prohibition bartenders.

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#1. The Old-fashioned Whiskey Cocktail

Vessel: 5½ fl-oz. (or larger) old-fashioned glass tumbler

Build in the tumbler:

→ 1 cube of sugar (standard 1 tsp. size)

→ 1-3 fl-dsh. additive bitters of choice

→ ~¼ fl-oz. flat water (or more, depending on taste or the proof of the liquor)

Muddle until the sugar is dissolved and cocktail water is created

Add:

→ 2 fl-oz. service ice (2 full-ounce cubes)

→ 2 fl-oz. whiskey (American rye, Bourbon or Tennessee)

Garnish by twisting a strip of lemon zest over the drink and then dropping it in

Briefly stir the drink in its tumbler

Enjoy!

Note: this was just the old-fashioned way to make a cocktail of any liquor – not just whiskey.  I also recommend the Old-fashioned Cognac Cocktail, the Old-fashioned Scotch Cocktail, the Old-fashioned Rum Cocktail, the Old-fashioned Holland Gin Cocktail, etc.  The old-fashioned way to make and serve a cocktail keeps the drink cold longer than with the later method.  But, an old-fashioned cocktail can become too watery for some tastes.  For comparison, here is the later, now-very-rare, version:

#1.a. The Whiskey Cocktail

Vessel: 4½ fl-oz. glass cocktail goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing glass:

→ 2 fl-oz. whiskey (American rye, Bourbon or Tennessee)

→ 2 fl-dsh. additive bitters (of choice)

→ ¼ fl-oz. simple 1:1 sugar syrup (containing 1 tsp. of sugar)

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the goblet

Garnish by twisting a strip of lemon zest over the drink and then dropping it in

Enjoy!

Note: the newer way to make a cocktail required more clean water (in the syrup and method ice), but allowed the drink to be cold when served without ice.  It also offered the stem, with which the drinker held the drink to avoid warming it with their body heat.  The newer way to make and serve a cocktail avoids letting the drink become more watery with time, but does risk letting it become warm.  I will enjoy either – depending on how long I believe the drink will exist!

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#2. The Rye Sazerac Cocktail

Vessel: 5½ fl-oz. (or larger) old-fashioned glass tumbler

Chill or freeze the tumbler and then rinse the inside of it with a little absinthe

Build in the tumbler:

→ 1 cube of sugar (standard 1 tsp. size)

→ 1-3 fl-dsh. Peychaud’s aromatic additive bitters

→ ~¼ fl-oz. flat water (or more, depending on taste or the proof of the liquor)

Muddle until the sugar is dissolved and cocktail water is created

Add:

→ 2 fl-oz. service ice (2 full-ounce cubes)

→ 2 fl-oz. American rye whiskey

Garnish by twisting a strip of lemon zest over the drink and then dropping it in

Briefly stir the drink in its tumbler

Enjoy!

Note: this New Orleans-associated drink was originally just an old-fashioned cocktail based on Sazerac-de-Forge et Fils Cognac brandy.  The brand went defunct, probably due to the European grape blight. After it was no longer available, bartenders substituted the default American spirit of the time – rye whiskey.  Assuming a simple origin (just a regular cocktail made of Sazerac brandy), it is not clear when the absinthe made its way into the drink.  The drink plausibly had a long history before Boothby published the recipe for it in his 1908 book.  Even in 1908, Boothby still presents the drink as being based on “Sazerac brandy.”  I often make and enjoy the more-original Cognac version of this drink.  There is a lot of lore spoken and written about the Sazerac Cocktail that is not documented by any sources from the supposed time of its creation – or for decades afterwards.

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#3. The Manhattan Cocktail

Vessel: 4½ fl-oz. glass cocktail goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing glass:

→ 1½ fl-oz. American rye whiskey

→ ½ fl-oz. sweet vermouth wine (rosso/rouge)

→ 2 fl-dsh. proprietary ‘aromatic’ additive bitters (such as Angostura, Boker’s or Fee’s)

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the goblet

Garnish with an authentic maraschino cherry on a skewer

Enjoy!

Note: this drink can be seen as a rye whiskey cocktail fancily-sweetened by vermouth instead of sugar.  Boothby, in his 1891 book, ‘American Bar-tender,’ gives what might be the earliest recipe for the Manhattan Cocktail that did not include any liqueur.  In his recipe, the whiskey and vermouth are in equal parts of 1 fl-oz. each.  I love it that way, but it is almost never made in that proportion anymore.

Also, many people prefer orange additive bitters.  But before prohibition, that would have been known as a different drink: the York Cocktail (Kappeler, 1895).  Similarly, using Bourbon whiskey instead of rye, or drier vermouth, or different garniture yields drinks that had their own names in the golden era of American cocktails.  Furthermore, to make the pre-1900 Martini Cocktail, simply follow the recipe above and use old tom gin in place of the whiskey and orange additive bitters in place of the aromatic additive bitters.  What is most-commonly called a ‘Martini’ today, even with gin and vermouth, is not a drink that a pre-1900 bartender would consider a cocktail, unless it contains bitters, too.

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#4. The Camparinette Cocktail (a.k.a. the Negroni Cocktail)

Vessel: 4½ fl-oz. glass cocktail goblet (chilled)

Build in service-ware:

→ 2/3 fl-oz. dry gin

→ 2/3 fl-oz. sweet vermouth wine (rosso/rouge)

→ 2/3 fl-oz. Campari (calisaya-type grand bitters)

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the goblet

Garnish by twisting a strip of lemon zest over the drink and then dropping it in

Enjoy!

Note: this drink is one of the few still-somewhat-popular true cocktails that seems to have been created after prohibition.  I must confess to having told customers the drink lore about this one – Count Negroni in 1919 and so-on.  Unfortunately, there is no documentary evidence for that lore.  In fact, what appears first as the Negroni is a cup – that is a sling based on wine containing soda water.  The earliest recipe that modern bartenders would call the Negroni Cocktail was actually published in 1934 as the Camparinette Cocktail and seems not to have been created in Italy at all.

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#5. The Champagne Cocktail

Vessel: 6 fl-oz. glass flute goblet (chilled)

Build in the goblet:

→ 1 cube of sugar

→ 2 fl-dsh. proprietary ‘aromatic’ additive bitters (such as Angostura, Boker’s or Fee’s)

→ ~¼ fl-oz. charged water

Muddle (with the small end of a barspoon) until the sugar is dissolved and cocktail water is created

Add:

→ 4 fl-oz. sparkling Champagne wine

Enjoy!

Note: this drink actually pre-dates the Manhattan Cocktail.  It was published in Jerry Thomas’ 1862 book.  I have left it to the end – probably due to my feeling that it is not a great cocktail – but it is still ordered.  I don’t feel that it improves the wine, which has no alcohol burn worthy of bittering, anyway.  I do confess to liking the Jersey Cocktail, which is made the same way, but with cider (hard apple) – and the Perry Cocktail, which is made the same way, but with perry (hard pear cider).

What Does Your Liquor Think of You?

By Andrew “the Alchemist”

Sunday, September 26, 2010

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Would you like to know what your favorite liquor thinks of you?

Does it think you are educated in seeking out superior products?

Or, does it think that you are motivated by the wish that your life were more sexy than it is?

Are you really interested in knowing what your liquor thinks of you?

Warning!  Proceed at your own risk!

Go to Google images: http://www.google.com/imghp

Type in the proprietary name associated with one of your favorite liquors. That means that if you like George Dickel Tennessee Whiskey, you will just type in George Dickel.

Now look at the images that appear.  Do you see multiple images among the first five rows that look like they could come from the cover of a big-budget pornographic video?

If you do, it means that this liquor company has made the basic, but high-level, decision to capture the dollars of the poorly-educated masses that wish their life was more glamorous and sexy than it will ever be.  This is what your liquor thinks of you.

If you don’t, it could mean a lot of things.  But, one of them is the possibility that your liquor thinks you are a bit more sophisticated in your tastes or liquor-awareness than the masses.

Of course, this is not an accurate science and mostly just fun.  Some liquor companies probably agree think you are dumb and frustrated, but just don’t have the advertising budget to exploit your perceived vulnerabilities.

If you are a good Google searcher and only find a few images of any type associated with your favorite liquors, you probably are an adventurous-but-discerning, and educated, drinker.

With any type of product, a lack of flashy images found doing this type of search means that the company either doesn’t have much of an advertising budget, or they are doing fine on word of mouth – or both.

In my case, it was a mix, but at least the majority of my most-revered liquors had a low ‘porn-index.’  Luxardo Triplum might just think I am intelligent and satisfied, while Cointreau seems to think I am dumb and frustrated.

What does your liquor think of you?

Pre-prohibition Drinks of the Week [No. 2]

Pre-prohibition Drinks of the Week [No. 2]

By Andrew “the Alchemist”

Sunday, September 26, 2010

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It’s Sunday, and time for another edition of the Pre-prohibition Drinks of the Week!

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Pre-prohibition Ensemble of the Week:

The Marble Wall

From: The Bartenders’ Encyclopedia – by Tim Daly (1903)

Service-ware: 4 fl-oz. stemmed glass cordial goblet

Build in the service-ware:

→ 1 fl-oz. American rye whiskey

→ 2 fl-oz. dry white wine

Enjoy!

Note: the old-fashioned gin glass is indicated for this drink, for which the still-available 4 fl-oz. stemmed cordial glass substitutes nicely. The traditional portion for un-mixed spirits is 2 fl-oz., while the traditional portion for wine is 4 fl-oz. – so this drink is a half-portion of the whiskey with a half-portion of the wine.  No garniture is indicated with this drink – but one might prefer to garnish it by twisting a strip of lemon zest over it, and then dropping it in.

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Pre-prohibition Sling of the Week:

The Liberal Cocktail

From: Modern American Drinks – by George Kappeler (1895)

Service-ware: 4½ fl-oz. glass cocktail goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing glass:

→ 1 fl-oz. American rye whiskey

→ 1 fl-oz. Torani™ amer (grand bitters)

→ ¼ fl-oz. simple 1:1 sugar syrup

→ method ice

Stir slowly to mix, chill and dilute

Strain into the service-ware

Garnish by twisting a strip of lemon zest over the drink and then dropping it in

Enjoy!

Note: Picon™ Amer is indicated as the bitters in this cocktail.  Picon replaced that product with one of a different formula in the 1970’s. Luckily, Torani produces a grand bitters purportedly-according to the original Picon formula.

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Pre-prohibition Posset of the Week:

The Angel’s Dream

From: The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book – by Albert Stevens Crockett (1935)

This drink is from the main layer of material in Crockett’s book, which he states came from the original recipe book in his possession that had been used in the hotel’s bar until it closed in 1919.

Service-ware: 5 fl-oz. glass wine goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing tin:

→ 1 fl-oz. maraschino liqueur

→ 1 fl-oz. crème de violette liqueur

→ 1 fl-oz. heavy cream

→ plenty of method ice

Cover with half-tin and shake vigorously to mix, chill, dilute and aerate

Finely-strain into the service-ware

Garnish with an authentic maraschino cherry on a skewer

Enjoy!

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Pre-prohibition Punch of the Week:

Sangaree (á la 1806)

From: Notes on the West Indies – by George Pinckard (1806)

“Punch and sangaree are commonly taken as the diluents of the morning. The latter forms a most delightful drink. A glass of it, taken when parching of thirst, from heat and fatigue, may be ranked among the highest gratifications of our nature! At such a moment, a draught of sangaree approaches nearer, perhaps, to god-like nectar, than any other known liquor. It consists of half Madeira wine and half water, acidulated with the fragrant lime, sweetened with sugar, and flavored with nutmeg.” (Pinckard, 1806)

Sangaree itself is indicated by the Oxford English Dictionary as being extant as early as 1736, when the Gentleman’s Magazine of London mentions it with the line, “Mr. Gordon, a punch-seller in the Strand, had devised a new punch made of strong Madeira wine and called Sangre.”

By the mid 1800’s, sangaree had found its way to France, where it was called “sangris” and where that name was folk-etymologized as meaning “gray blood.”

It seems even later that the drink travelled to Spain, where it would become known as “sangria” and would eventually be made from any type of wine.

The ‘sangaree’ found in American books of the late 1800’s is a mutation from its original punch form of the 1700’s into an American sling.

Service-ware: 10½ fl-oz. glass punch tumbler

→ 4 fl-oz. service ice (4 full-ounce cubes)

Combine in a mixing tin:

→ 2 fl-oz. verdelho Madeira wine

→ 1 fl-oz. freshly-pressed Key lime juice

→ 1 tbsp. superfine sugar

→ 1½ fl-oz. flat water

→ plenty of method ice

Cover with half-tin and shake vigorously to mix, chill, dilute and aerate

Finely-strain into the service-ware

Insert straw

Garnish with nutmeg grated over the top of the drink

Enjoy!

Note: the source indicates equal parts Madeira wine and water, but I use less water to allow for dilution from method and service ice.  If you cannot find verdelho Madeira, rainwater Madeira will do.

Tip: go have a seat at the bar in Jaraguá at 4493 Beverly boulevard in Los Angeles, and tell the bartender that Andrew suggested the old-time Sangaree.

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Pre-prohibition Grog of the Week:

The Brain Duster

From: Modern American Drinks – by George Kappeler (1895)

Service-ware: 9½ fl-oz. glass highball tumbler (no ice)

Combine in mixing tin:

→ 1 fl-oz. absinthe

→ ½ fl-oz. rye whiskey

→ ½ fl-oz. sweet vermouth

→ ¼ fl-oz. simple 1:1 sugar syrup

→ plenty of method ice

Cover with half-tin and shake vigorously to mix, chill, dilute and aerate

Strain into the service-ware, and then add:

→ 4 fl-oz. charged water (this should not be enough to fill the highball tumbler)

No straw or garniture is necessary, as this drink is meant to be consumed quickly

Enjoy!

Note: the original method seems to have been to stir rather than to shake – but, for this drink, I prefer to shake with plenty of method ice in order to minimize dilution, which is flat, and threatens the charged water that makes up the body of this grog. Also, if a 7 fl-oz. fizz glass is available, it should be used instead, in which the charged water can be added to the fill-point.

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Pre-prohibition Succulent of the Week:

The Monte Carlo

Adapted from: The Bartenders’ Encyclopedia – by Tim Daly (1903)

Service-ware: 5 fl-oz. glass wine goblet (chilled)

Combine in a mixing tin:

→ 1¾ fl-oz. Cognac brandy (or good French brandy)

→ ¼ fl-oz. Bénédictine™ liqueur

→ 1 fl-oz. freshly-pressed orange juice

→ 1 sprig of fresh mint (clapped)

→ plenty of method ice

Cover with half-tin and shake vigorously to mix, chill, dilute and aerate

Finely-strain into the service-ware

Garnish with a quarter-wheel slice of orange

Enjoy!

Pre-prohibition Fixes, Sours & Daisies

Have you ever wondered about the differences between Fixes, Sours and Daisies?  I have just completed tables for comparing them from the major, pre-prohibition sources over the time period of 1862 through 1908.

If you would like me to e-mail you the free (pdf) file, e-mail me at: andrew@elementalmixology.com